Electrical cars run on the electrical power derived from battery packs carried on the board. They may use electric motors and controllers to generate energy instead of internal combustion engine (ICE). Another type of electrical cars are Hybrid cars which use both electric motors as well as other type of engines, but they are not considered as pure electric vehicles (EV) as they operate in charge sustaining mode. The electrical car fuel is the electrical energy stored in a capacitor or battery.
Type of fuel used
Rechargeable batteries, electric motors and controllers provide electricity which acts as the fuel for the electrical cars. Different methods can be used to generate this electricity for propelling the vehicle. The electric cars are normally charged from grids at home and charging places which in turn generate electricity from various sources like coal, hydro electricity, nuclear, solar panel etc.
The performance of electric powered cars
The energy efficiency of electrical cars depends on the charging and discharging efficiencies. Moreover as there is no waste heat generated in an electrical car unlike a gasoline powered vehicle, they have better energy efficiency. To achieve better range, the speed of the car is compromised. Better efficiency is achieved by reducing the weight of the electrical cars. To compensate for the heavy weight of the batteries, the electrical car body is built lighter compared to gasoline cars. The regenerative braking feature of the electric cars increases its overall efficiency. A good amount of the energy spend during acceleration is recovered while braking, thereby balancing the amount of electrical car fuel consumed and generated and thus resulting in increased efficiency.
Pros and cons of the fuel
Low noise offered by the electrical cars make them a good choice to go for compared to traditional internal combustion engine cars. But this nature of electrical cars results in an unexpected threat where the road users and visually impaired people find it difficult to hear and identify these vehicles on the road. The electrical cars come with many modern features but using them reduces the range of the car to a considerable extend. These cars can withstand impact better than gasoline powered cars. The fuel recharging time for an electrical car is more than that of a traditional internal combustion engine car. A good electrical infrastructure providing quick battery recharge is required to reduce the time spent on charging while travelling. The speed limit is one disadvantage of electrical cars compared to conventional gasoline powered cars.
Electric Car Use in different countries
Electrical cars are used in many countries due to their energy efficient and pollution free features when compared to gasoline fuel cars. China is one country which emphasizes the production and usage of electrical cars. Electrical cars are well suited to Chinese local conditions. Since China depends on coal for most of its electrical power generation, electrical car usage creates a significant amount of indirect CO2 pollution which is one drawback of this market. To reduce the consumption of CO2, the United Kingdom has announced plans and has taken up steps to introduce mass produced electrical vehicles on the road thereby leading from forefront the ‘green car revolution’.
Many test schemes of electrical fuel cars are carried out in Britain.
The British government has taken up measures for supporting the electrical fuel car production and thereby creating more jobs to become a world leader in electrical car production. In order to make London the electrical fuel car capital of Europe, the officials have launched plans to setup thousands of charging places for these cars. Subsidies are provided by the government to convert the vehicles from gasoline fuelled to electrical fuel cars.
The usage of electrical cars in United States has seen a significant increase in the recent years. Electrical fuel cars find an attractive market in countries like Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Portugal and Israel.
Environmental benefits of electric Cars
The electrical cars do not produce any emissions and so do not create any major environmental issues compared to petrol driven cars. But the electrical energy generation required to fuel these cars emit carbon dioxide into the environment. In countries where the electrical energy generation is mainly from coal, this becomes a major issue while in countries dominated by hydro and nuclear power generation, the CO2 emission is less. The environmental impact and efficiency of electrical fuel powered cars is determined mainly by the source, method and efficiency of electrical power generation. Electrical cars are the best alternative to avoid health problems due to smog. As these cars produce very less sound at low speeds, they never create a noise pollution.
Reliability of Electric Cars
Along with charging stations, replaceable battery packs are an important factor to be considered for long distance electrical car travels. As charging a battery full takes a long time, replacing the empty battery with a charged one is a better option to go for. The maintenance cost for electrical cars are less compared to the gasoline cars. The parts are very less frequently replaced in an electrical car. The design and operation of the electrical fuel cars are such that they produce very less wear and tear and thus replacement of the parts needs to be done only very rarely.
Cost of the fuel
The unit of measurement for calculating the fuel efficiency of electrical cars is miles per gallon of gasoline equivalent (MPGe). The MPGe formula uses battery to wheels energy for electrical cars. The cost of the infrastructure for electrical car fuelling is another factor affecting the overall running cost of electrical cars. High end charging setup is required for powering the supercapacitor-equipped electrical cars. The large batteries used in these cars for storing electrical energy are very costly. For long distance running, frequent charging stations are required. Alternative methods to store energy offer reliable ways to achieve fuel efficiency without sacrificing range and performance.
Fuel Tax benefits in the UK
The tax rates in the UK favor eco friendly cars. Vehicles emitting large amount of CO2 are charged with heavy taxes compared to the electrical cars which are almost zero emission cars. The government also provides cash incentives to the manufactures as well as owners to encourage the electrical car market. These cars enjoy the benefits of zero road tax and congestion charges. Free or discounted parking and reduced tax bills make the electrical cars a very good option to go for in the UK.
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